Populations are aging rapidly worldwide, particularly in Asia, driving a strong interest in aging/longevity research. This Keystone Symposia meeting will capture the cutting-edge front of this exciting field of science, covering essential aspects of aging/longevity research, including critical signaling pathways and regulators, inter-tissue communication, stem cells, stress and damage responses, cellular senescence, physiological rhythms, human genetics and mental well-being (happiness). Because aging is a systemic phenomenon, it is important to address various layers of the aging/longevity-controlling hierarchy, particularly focusing on metabolic regulation, including mitochondria, NAD+, oxidative stress, inflammation, protein homeostasis, autophagy and many other age-associated pathophysiologies. The outcome of these studies needs to be translated to resolve social and economic issues caused by rapidly aging societies. Novel therapeutic and preventive interventions have been explored and developed as a growing attempt to meet the unmet needs of our aging societies, and these new aspects of aging/longevity research and the gaps in knowledge between the basic science and practical applications will also be covered in the meeting. There is a growing body of evidence that our modern lifestyle, such as the heavy use of blue light in smart phones and tablet computers, affects physiological rhythms and metabolism, promoting age-associated diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cancer and depression. Therefore, it is now time to think differently about what we can do to deal with all these problems in light of recent progress in this exciting field of science.