The evidence base and research agenda for malaria elimination and eradication are fast-evolving. Of foremost concern is the threat of resistance of the mosquito to pyrethroid insecticides and emerging data showing multi-drug resistance in Southeast Asia. An evolving area, with much to be understood, is the epidemiology of sub-microscopic infections and how they fuel onward transmission. There is also a lot of progress; for example, in the development pipeline there are candidates for a single-dose cure that can also provide protection and block transmission, and there are novel classes of insecticides. Finally, in implementation science, there is plenty to examine, from mass drug administration of anti-malarials to re-purposing ivermectin to reduce residual transmission. This Keystone Symposia meeting examines the scientific progress being made toward the goals of eliminating and eradicating malaria, from biological challenges and discoveries, to the development of the next generation of tools, to potentially transformative strategies to eliminate malaria. The ultimate goal of the meeting is to provide a unique and needed space for the malaria community to challenge hypotheses and share emerging data and insights from the different disciplines in a retreat-like setting where scientists can network, think creatively and exchange ideas. For the sustainability needed to meet the challenge of eradicating malaria, fostering these fruitful exchanges and lasting scientific partnerships is absolutely critical.