6th International Hybrid Power Systems Workshop 2022 (6th International Hybrid Power Systems Workshop 2022)
Madeira, Portugal, 26- 27 April 2022

Hybrid Power/Energy Systems (Island Power Systems)

Hybrid Power Systems : Carbon Reduction Through Spinning Reserve
GB Singh Chauhan
University of California, San Diego, United States
As the variable energy sources become predominant in the energy mix, carbon reduction, power system stability and resiliency have become the topics of prime research. Grid connected or Island systems face similar challenges for multiple applications like frequency control, economic dispatch, peak shaving, black start or spinning reserve. We have studied an Islanded Microgrid application consisting of BESS (Battery Energy Storage System) and Gas Turbine Generator (GTG) system used for Spinning Reserve application. In this paper we present integrated architecture of Hybrid Power System and determine the control algorithm for such operation. We ascertain the response time for the power system, ensuring there is enough spinning reserve available on the grid for smooth operation of the plant and in turn this leads to a reduced carbon foot print operation. Later these results are verified through theoretical framework of Rate of Change of Frequency (RoCoF) and physical testing in Hardware in-the-Loop simulation (HIL).
As the variable energy sources become predominant in the energy mix, carbon reduction, power system stability and resiliency have become the topics of prime research. Grid connected or Island systems face similar challenges for multiple applications like frequency control, economic dispatch, peak shaving, black start or spinning reserve. We have studied an Islanded Microgrid application consisting of BESS (Battery Energy Storage System) and Gas Turbine Generator (GTG) system used for Spinning Reserve application. In this paper we present integrated architecture of Hybrid Power System and determine the control algorithm for such operation. We ascertain the response time for the power system, ensuring there is enough spinning reserve available on the grid for smooth operation of the plant and in turn this leads to a reduced carbon foot print operation. Later these results are verified through theoretical framework of Rate of Change of Frequency (RoCoF) and physical testing in Hardware in-the-Loop simulation (HIL).

Development and Analysis of an Off-grid Solar Food Processing System in Kenya
Alexander Morgenstern, Dilara Maria Subasi, Norbert Pfanner, Nils Reiners, Felix Stortz, Johannes Wüllner, Md Nasimul Islam Maruf
Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Germany
The agricultural sector, including fisheries, is one of the main economic drivers in Kenya, which employs two million people to accelerate the rural community development in the country. These fisheries contribute to food security, livelihood security, poverty reduction, and rural development. However, there are high post-harvest losses due to inefficient and inadequate cooling and drying practices, poor processing and transportation techniques, badly insulated and designed storage containers, and weak handling and mismanagement. These losses impede economic development and cause health problems, which can be minimized by a blend of technical, policy support, and societal solutions. This paper focuses on the technical part of the solution, where we propose an off-grid hybrid food processing system for Kenyan fisheries. Following a feasibility analysis, we implemented a working prototype composed of two main parts: (i) solar PV and battery-based ice machines for cooling, and (ii) solar thermal collector and heat storage-based dryers for drying the fish. Besides, an energy management system is installed to monitor and control the different components in the system. Based on simulation results, a PV system of 15 kW and a lithium-ion battery of 14.4 kWh are selected for powering a 5.6 kW ice machine. Economic analysis of the cooling system shows that a capital expenditure of 85,052 € is needed for the cooling system, which can be further reduced by 40% to make it more economically feasible. The annual operation and maintenance cost is calculated to be 3,410 €. Sensitivity analysis shows that the payback period can be as low as six years when subsidies finance the system. Life cycle analysis shows that the PV-battery-based system can provide better environmental benefits (0.06 kg CO2/kWhe) compared to grid-powered (0.23 kg CO2/kWhe) or diesel-generator powered (1.14 kg CO2/kWhe) systems.

Smart Mobile Vaccination Pickup for Sustainable Improvement of Medical Care and Smart Pandemic Control in Southern Africa
Joachim Koschikowski 1, Joachim Went 1, Norbert Pfanner 1, Felix Stortz 1, Lothar Schäfer 2, Frank Neumann 2, Bryan Lotz 3, Marc Beckett 3, Martin Hamann 4, Johannes Wüllner 1, Md Nasimul Islam Maruf 1
1 Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Germany
2 Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films IST, Germany
3 Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Germany
4 Stellenbosch University, South Africa
In cases of crisis and disaster like the current Covid-19 pandemic, mobile, decentralized systems for providing medical services to the population can be a crucial addition to existing healthcare infrastructure. One of the challenges is to bring the technical solutions for containing the pandemic to bear under the economic and social constraints of developing and emerging countries through low-cost analysis and frugal innovation. In this paper an innovative self-sufficient mobile healthcare platform for different pickup vehicle models, which includes (i) a standalone and hybrid solar PV battery-based power system, (ii) a communication center for remote examination by telemedical services, (iii) a new cost-effective and reliable rapid tests for Coronavirus, but also other diseases, (iv) highly energy efficient refrigerators for medicine, vaccines, Coronavirus test equipment, etc., and (v) water treatment and purification technologies for the production of clean water is proposed.

Is Real Inertia Always Better? Synchronous Condensers, Fast Frequency Response, and Virtual Inertia in Isolated Hybrid Power Systems
Daniel Vázquez Pombo 1, 2, Dominique Alonso Sørensen 3, 4, Jon Martinez-Rico 5, 6
1 Research and Development, Vattenfall AB, Stockholm, Sweden, Sweden
2 Department of Wind and Energy Systems, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark, Denmark
3 Department of Electrical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Spain, Spain
4 Smart Grid Department, Arteche, Munguía, Spain, Spain
5 Department of Energy Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, Spain
6 Automation and Control Unit, Fundaciión Tekniker, Basque Research and Technology Alliance, Eibar, Spain, Spain
Power grids worldwide face different challenges due to the renewable energy transition. One of the most important is inertia reduction, whose most daring effects appear on frequency stability. Scientific literature has paid a great deal of attention to these problematics whose solutions are summarized in two approaches: to maintain a certain level of mechanical inertia via rotating masses, or to replace it with virtual or synthetic inertia. The advantages of mechanical inertia via synchronous condensers (SC) are related to their relatively simple plug and play setup, well proven technology, easy control, and capability to support short circuit capacity. However, they represent additional operating costs and only provide support during the first few instants of a frequency excursion. On the other hand, fast frequency response (FFR) and frequency containment reserve (FCR) are generic ancillary services that can be provided by both renewable generators and energy storage systems. FFR and FCR cover the full spectrum of a frequency excursion’s recovery; while they are complex to implement, still suffering rapid development and representing additional costs either as additional installation or loss of production. FFR and FCR provision are expected to become more profitable in the near future in order to motivate their development, yet; this is not currently the case.
In this work, we use an isolated power system from the Cape Verde reference system [1] as benchmark to study frequency evolution after an N-1 contingency. The purpose is to compare the system performance with its original configuration, including SC and with synthetic inertia provided from renewable units. We assume the latter to be provided by a Hybrid Power Plant compound by a wind farm, solar photovoltaic modules and a battery energy storage.
The conclusions should help to clarify thresholds favoring one approach over the other and support future decision making regarding system planning.

[1] D. V. Pombo, H. W. Bindner, P. Sorensen, E. Fonseca, and H. Andrade, “The Islands of Cape Verde as a Reference System for 100% Renewable Deployment,” in 2021 IEEE Green Technologies Conference (GreenTech). Denver, CO, USA: IEEE, Apr. 2021, pp. 455–461.

Assessment of renewable hybrid power plants on Greek non interconnected islands and their contribution to CO2 and fuel demand reduction by evaluating the potential penetration rates on different islands.
Julian Gerstner, Luan Leao-Gloria
ABO Wind AG, Germany
After almost five years of working on investigation and development of renewable energy (RE) hybrid power plants (HPP) on some of the Greek non-interconnected islands (NII), we want to display the status quo of the HPP´s currently under development on different NII´s. We want to demonstrate the possible contribution of these HPP´s on reducing CO2 emissions and fossil fuel demand. For doing so, the size, components, and development stage of the HPP´s are assessed; existing and operating RE power plants such as wind and solar photovoltaic, the thermal power plant park as well as the load pattern of the investigated NII´s are also included in the analysis. For this evaluation, our inhouse system modelling approach is used, especially developed to quantify the impacts of the planned Greek NII´s HPPs considering the recent regulations on HPP´s for NII´s. In the case of Greek regulations HPP´s are a combination of a renewable source generator (e.g.: wind and/or solar) which are mainly intended, but not limited to, to support the grid in the peak load hours. The energy storage component of these systems is used as a dispatchable generator, which supports the grid when mostly needed and due to its predictability, can be dispatched in combination with a clear cut in fossil fuel consumption. These HPPs have also legal and technical advantage over stand-alone renewable generators, because the single RE generator is curtailed before the HPP´s for system security reasons.
The islands studied in this paper are not yet interconnected with the Greek mainland public electricity grid even though the plan of interconnection exists already. The Greek Regulatory Authority for Energy (RAE) and the Independent Power Transmission Operator (IPTO) are planning to connect the main Aegean, Cyclades, and Dodecanese islands with the mainland until 2030, aiming at securing the future energy supply of the islands even at the times when the thermal power plants must have been dismantled. To date of this paper the main source of electric energy generation on the assessed islands is via centrally located thermal power plants, operated with diesel or heavy fuel oil.
The paper is meant to be a first analysis of the HPP´s under development on different NII´s for pointing out the theoretically future amount of RE penetration, CO2 and fossil fuel reduction on the considered islands by considering that all the HPP´s under development are already installed and operated as the dispatchable RE HPP´s they are. It is not in the scope of this paper to cover technical and economical details of the planned interconnections and delivers no assessment as well about the interconnection plans of the NII´s with the mainland. But it could serve as a base for further assessments on the planed interconnections and for starting a discussion about it. Furthermore, the paper will not tackle and assess the recent plans of the Greek Government and the European Commission about installing a competitive tender scheme for HPP´s on the NII´s.
The goal of the paper and the presentation is to show how the load at the assessed islands would be supplied in theory considering that all HPPs projects currently under development will be implemented and which impacts this would have on CO2 emissions as well as fossil fuel demand.

A Contrast Study of Climate Influence on the Stand-Alone Microgrid System with a Hybrid Renewable Power Storage System
Dinan Wang, Michael Grimmelt
Institute of Energy System and Energy Economy, University of Applied Sciences Ruhr West, Germany
In the efforts to combat global warming, diversified social, political and technical strategies have been proposed and partially carried out. The vision to have a 100% renewable energy-based electricity system has been one of the long-term strategies in Germany. It is well known that renewable energy can only be utilized to the full extent when its down-side characteristics of intermittency and variability can be compensated by a practical storage system. Due to its long-term storage capacity in comparison to the battery storage, hydrogen storage systems have been undergoing a technological development and deployment boom in recent years, especially for the microgrid systems. This research evaluates the techno-economic feasibility of a 100% hybrid renewable energy-based system with different scenarios of energy storage systems for an off-grid microgrid system in two distinct climate regions within Germany, namely Hamburg and Munich. The “HOMER Pro” software was used to analyse the economic and environmental impact amongst the case studies. The aim of this theoretical study is to answer the questions: 1) Under different climate conditions which type of energy storage (i.e. battery, hydrogen tank, and hybrid battery-hydrogen tank) can offer the overall flexibility and economic advantages? 2) For a specific climate condition, how is the hybrid storage system deployed to achieve the optimum cost-effective scenario?

Test infrastructure for the investigation and standardization of the fault ride through behavior of electrolysers
Jannik Barthel, Lorenz Beck, Kevin Schalk, Nora Denecke, Gesa Quistorf
Fraunhofer-Institute for Wind Energy Systems (IWES), Germany
Green hydrogen will play a major and decisive role in the future as it can be used for a wide range of applications. With a targeted scale of 40 GW of electrolysis in 2030, it is of crucial interest for grid operators and consequently the hydrogen industry to test the electrical properties in an early stage to ensure reliable in-field operation [1]. Electrolysers are nonlinear, dynamic loads connected to the grid via rectifier technology. Despite this, the electrical requirements do not apply analogously to distributed energy resources as wind turbines or photovoltaic. Especially the Fault Ride Through (FRT) behavior is insufficiently studied.

Test infrastructure at the Fraunhofer IWES in Bremerhaven, Germany
The FRT capability of converter units is necessary to reduce the risk of grid failures. The rising amount of installed wind energy capacities in the last decade has shown that short voltage dips cannot be neglected and consequently, corresponding grid codes were defined [2] [3]. In addition to grid codes, standards such as IEC 61400-21-1 have been established to define the measurement and assessment of electrical characteristics [4].
Fraunhofer IWES offers the infrastructure and expertise to perform tests and validations in conformity to the IEC standards. The Hydrogen Lab Bremerhaven (HLB) consists of two 1 MW electrolysers with PEM and alkaline technology, a stationary fuel cell as well as a combined heat and power unit. Additional test pads (DUT-Pads) for hydrogen devices with a nominal power of up to 5 MW are available. The particular benefit of the HLB is that it can be directly connected to further test infrastructure, namely the Power Electronics Grid Simulator (PEGS) of the Dynamic Nacelle Testing Laboratory. The high performance PEGS is able to emulate both static and dynamic grid scenarios. This is necessary to determine the active and reactive power output as well as the behavior at FRTs under different grid conditions. Thus, tests with different technologies even in an island grid can be performed to validate the test components.

Due to European installation targets for the next years, electrolysers must be tested in a larger scale to ensure reliable grid operation [1]. Therefore, research and development projects with a focus on validation under realistic conditions should be realized. The participation of manufacturers, system operators and research institutes in this process is essential. Within the projects innovative test methods and scenarios for FRTs can be developed and assessed. The results will be used to evolve and validate standards for electrolysers and furthermore to support manufactures improving the electrical design.
The HLB offers the ideal environment to conduct projects in this field. On basis of the extensive test infrastructure different types of hydrogen consuming or producing components as well as grid conditions can be tested. In total, the HLB offers an independent, up to this point worldwide unique possibility to test and validate wind and hydrogen equipment in a realistic and reliable environment.

[1] E. Commission, „A hydrogen strategy for a climate-neutral Europe,“ Brussels, 2020.
[2] „ENTSO-E Connection Network Codes implementation website,“ [Online]. Available: https://www.entsoe.eu/activelibrary/codes/cnc/.
[3] E. Commission, „Establishing a network code on requirements for grid connection of generators,“ Official Journal of the European Union, Brussels, 2016.
[4] „IEC 61400-21-1: Measurement and assessment of electrical characteristics - Wind turbines,“ IEC, 2019.

Manage your Hybrid Power Energy to the next level
Michael Wollny, Pierre-Olivier Moix
Studer Innotec SA, Switzerland
Keywords: hybrid power inverter, power flow dispatcher, advanced energy management strategies, grid interactive, off-grid, modular design

Studer-Innotec developed and launched an innovated 3-phase hybrid power inverter solution that can be used for either hybrid (grid-interactive) or hybrid off-grid inverter to manage different types of batteries, solar, and backup AC power sources such as a diesel generator, CHP power generator or small hydro power generator. The hybrid off-grid inverter is used to build advanced energy management systems with build-in solar charge controller and can be likewise AC-coupled with solar string inverters. The modular design allows parallel operation of several inverters and the use of multi-battery units. The core management is done by a power flow dispatcher: A unique control algorithm at the power electronics level for quick reactions with 1ms synchronization between the units. A smart boost function helps to relieve the generator or public grid power by using the solar and battery energy available in priority and opening several energy strategies

Improvement of the existing power network of industrial enterprises through the hybrid microgrids
Nariman Rahmanov, Aynur Mahmudova
Azerbaijan Scientific-Research and Design-Prospecting Power Engineering Institute, Azerbaijan
Abstract— The shipbuilding industry is developing rapidly in our country and around the world. Thus, along with the construction and installation of new types of ships, the repair and periodic inspection of existing ships is also an important issue. Ship repairs are carried out at shipyards dry dock area. Preliminary research has shown that ships located in dry dock for maintenance and inspection receive electricity from external diesel generators. This is because the ships lost contact with the sea surface and can’t use its own power generation network without a water-cooling system. There are shipyards with dry-dock that are not designed to meet additional power needs. Thus, the diesel generator systems used to power the ships while they are in the shipyard are accompanied by additional costs and harmful CO2 emissions. The novelty of this article is to show the possibility of Renewable Energy Sources penetration in industrial enterprises based on their working principles and to show the new approach of RES usage. The aim in this research is to optimize the net present cost of the power supply system , highlight the amount of the CO2 emission and to decrease it, accordingly. Our proposed project is to study the extent to which this problem can be solved using hybrid microgrids. To substantiate this idea, the following issues explored: (1) the structure of the existing electrical network of one of the shipyards and its annual energy consumption, (2) geolocation and potential solar energy sources for the area, (3) the design of a possible microgrid in island mode and its components, (4) simulation of microgrid design with HOMER software, (5) economic and environmental feasibility, (6) possibility of integration into the existing shipyard network, (7) simulation of microgrid design with HOMER Pro software.
The disadvantage of using renewable energy networks is that the energy obtained is intermittent. However, since we are proposing a hybrid microgrid in parallel with generator, this factor will not affect the new power supply network and will lead to a more stable and environment friendly system. The proposed system will provide power to ships with different power consumption requirements, as well as power-up other electrical consumers at the plant, when the dry dock is empty.
Keywords-component; Renewable energy sources, hybrid, microgrids, solar power potential, power system improvement

Case Study of a Hybrid Power Microgrid in Rural India
Arunachalam K 1, Avinash Nandakumar 1, K. Ramachandra 2, A. Sharan 2
1 Fichtner Consulting Engineers (India) Pvt. Ltd, India
2 Decentralised Energy Systems (I) Pvt. Ltd., India
Hybrid Power Plants and Microgrids can play a vital role in accelerating the rural development process with reliable power supply, reduced pollution & CO2 emissions. The case study analyses such a project in Bihar, India, which uses renewable energy to promote, empower villages and accelerate rural development. It reports on the experience of reliable and affordable systems and hardware for hybrid power plant microgrids and enterprises suitable for village applications.

The paper covers a Hybrid Power Plant which powers a microgrid for a rural village in India. Going beyond the traditional goals of electrification (lighting and pumping), the microgrid also covers productive, energy-services, agro-processing enterprises for income generation and meeting social needs of the locality.

Two key challenges are discussed:
1. Design and Optimisation of the Hybrid Power Plants and Microgrids to ensure that loads are met reliably, on demand with profitability.

2. Participation, training, and capacity building of villagers to take full advantage of such projects.

The experience of working with villagers during the planning and operational phases of rural power systems and the training and capacity building programs needed to enable them to carry the responsibility for running plants and other local businesses and enterprises will be described.

Designing a Hybrid Power System for a Remote Telescope in the Atacama Desert
Isabelle Viole 1, Guillermo Valenzuela 1, Marianne Zeyringer 1, Øystein Ulleberg 2, Sabrina Sartori 1
1 University of Oslo, Department of Technology Systems, Norway
2 Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Kjeller, Norway, Norway

Abstract—Chile, a country situated along the western coast of South America, is characterized by the presence of the driest desert in the world, the Atacama, which offers ideal conditions for astronomical observations. A new telescope is planned in the area, 120 km away from the last connection point of the Chilean power grid. Its power demand of 400 to 1,000 kW(el) is planned to be met with an islanded hybrid energy system. Whereas other observatories and villages in the area rely on diesel generation, the new telescope will be designed to be powered by renewable energy in combination with storage technologies.
The costs and carbon footprint of the telescope’s power infrastructure is investigated for scenarios: 1) A photovoltaic park in cooperation with diesel generators; 2) A photovoltaic park combined with a battery storage system; 3) Diesel generators. A year of operation is simulated both in HOMER and GAMS, calculating the consumed fossil fuels for scenario (1) and (2) and the size of the battery storage system necessary to allow operation. The results from the two simulation options are compared regarding their dimensioning, costs and direct carbon emissions. A sensitivity analysis for cost components is carried out.
Keywords- Microgrid; Photovoltaics; Hybrid energy system design; Carbon footprint

Reactive Metals as Energy Carriers: An Aluminum-based Hybrid Energy Storage Case
Hüseyin Ersoy 1, Manuel Baumann 1, Linda Barelli 2, Marcel Weil 1, 3, Stefano Passerini 1, 3
1 KIT, Germany
2 University of Perugia (UNIPG), Italy
3 Helmholtz Institute of Ulm for Electrochemical Energy Storage – HIU | Karlsruhe Institute of Technology – KIT, Germany
Rapid acceleration on decarbonization of the major emitting sectors (i.e., energy generation, transportation) becomes more emergent to reach CO2 mitigation targets. In this sense, installation of renewable energy technologies and ensuring its continuous availability are crucial aspect for the emission reduction. To maintain this, availability of storage technologies and renewable fuels must be ensured. Mainly, Power-to-X technologies enable the balance of generation using different energy vectors (chemicals, heat, gas, etc.). In that sense, hydrogen (H2) is considered the main electricity-based fuel due to its large specific energy density. Nevertheless, techno-economic obstacles disabling its massive utilization necessitates the introduction of alternative energy carriers to meet the demand. For the very reason, metal energy carriers become very interesting alternatives for supporting this demand as they are energy dense heat and H2 carriers Especially, metals like aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), sodium (Na) considering their wide availability. Thus, in this study an Al wet combustion plant and use case is presented for contemporaneous electricity (4 MWe) and H2 (up to 46.8 kg h-1) supply aiming the mobility sector demand management and grid services. The proposed concept is a circular metal system where combusted Al is returned to the producers as Al2O3 and the round-trip efficiency of the system reaches up to 40.7% assuming a carbon-free Al smelting process. As for the economics, competitive electricity and H2 costs are estimated with respect to other energy carriers. Especially, the Al-based H2 cost which is in the range of 4.2–9.6 € kg–1 H2 as discussed in detail.

Experience in the Faroe Islands and similar projects (tbc)
Josue Muñoz 1, Pablo Astorga 1, Bruno Cardoso 2
1 Hitachi Energy, Spain
2 Hitachi Energy, Portugal
Solutions and projects with SEV: Experience in the Faroe Islands and other similar projects.

The hybrid power plant in Graciosa island - a pioneer project in Azores islands
Duarte Conde Silva 1, Nuno Taveira 2
1 Graciólica, Portugal
2 ENERCON, Portugal
The Graciosa island belongs to the Azores archipelago (Portugal) located in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. It was the chosen place by a private investor (Graciolica) to build a pioneer projects in Azores: the first hybrid power plant that includes a wind farm, a solar PV and a battery storage system. These generation assets, together with the utility’s main Diesel power plant, are controlled by an advanced Energy Management System (EMS).
This power plants is operating since mid-2019 and the aim of this paper is to describe the evolution of this project in terms of the hybrid power plant performance in the context of an ambitious plan for Graciosa island progressive decarbonization.

Hybrid Hydro and Solar PV Microgrid for Rural Electrification
Niko Iliadis
EST RES, Switzerland
Rural electrification projects make wide utilisation of solar PV in region combination with storage for the supply of their demand the sub-Saharan region. However, even though solar PV is characterised from an important intraday intermittence and a yearly profile, its variability between the years remains very small in comparison with other sources such as water inflows on a hydroelectric project.
In this project in Sub-Saharan Africa, we combined a hydroelectric power plant with solar PV, battery storage and diesel generators. We will present our methodology and results regarding our selection between a hydroelectric power plant with a reservoir dam and a run of the river, the selection process between centralised and distributed solar power plants, the optimal participation of diesel generation according to the water inflow probabilities, as well as the operation strategy definition to minimise the total lifecycle cost. We will emphasise the importance of the impact of the water inflow variability on the design and operation of such a system through different technical and economic metrics and analytics.

Adding Tidal Stream Generation to Balance the Grid Mix and Create a Cost Effective Solution For Net Zero Generation In The Faroe Islands - The Case Of Minesto
Martin Edlund
Minesto AB, Sweden
Predictable and sustainable electricity generation technologies that can reduce energy storage needs and offer security of supply in the much needed energy transition towards Net-zero are considered highly valuable. In many island contexts Ocean energy technologies converting energy from waves and currents have been considered. However, no dominant design or build out at scale has so far been accomplished. The second generation tidal energy converter technology developed by Minesto has in commercial scale testing in the Faroe Islands delivered promising performance results versus the cost structure of hardware and operations. The LCOE projections can at the first phase of deployment not offer a lower LCOE than wind- and off-shore wind systems. However, an analysis on the higher system-level - total generation, distribution and storage - suggests that it is economically attractive to balance the future Faroe Island’s net-zero electricity generation system with a 50/50 balance between wind and tidal generation capacity, complemented with the existing flexible production capacity of conventional hydro-power. This presentation outlines a net-zero road-map for the Faroe Islands based on a 40% share of generation capacity from Minesto’s tidal energy technology and discuss the benefits of such an approach.

6th International Hybrid Power Systems Workshop 2022
6th International Hybrid Power Systems Workshop 2022 (6th International Hybrid Power Systems Workshop 2022)
Madeira, Portugal, 26- 27 April 2022

Hybrid Power Plants (Combined Wind &Solar plus may be storage as a power plant connected to a grid)

Positive sequence and EMT domain modeling of grid forming hybrid plants for transmission studies
Brian Graham, Deepak Ramasubramanian
Electric Power Research Institute, United States
Hybrid power plants (HPPs) are an emerging technology generally defined as multiple different generation and/or storage resources behind a single point of interconnection. This blend of technologies possesses several advantages over conventional generation, such as reducing curtailment of renewables sources, peak shaving, among other benefits. However, at present, HPPs are not currently allowed for in some jurisdictions in the world due to their novelty, and there is no unified definition of HPPs across jurisdictions, which makes it difficult for widespread integration.
With many HPPs being inverter-based resources such as battery energy storage systems (BESS) with solar plants, it is important to verify the behaviour of such plants in the electromagnetic transient (EMT) domain. Further, it is important to understand the various services that such plants can provide to the network, and the different factors that may impact the provision of such services. With the increase of inverter-based resources (IBRs) in the network, it is also possible that soon, for few hours of the day, many power systems can be 100% fed from inverter-based generation. In this scenario, the performance of HPPs, and their potential grid forming capability is to be investigated.
This paper aims to address modelling challenges with HPPs in the positive sequence and EMT domains for issues such as stability, controller interaction, circulating AC current and demand response. The impact of HPPs on frequency stability and damping of power system oscillations will be shown. Further, the use of generic models to represent the behaviour of the hybrid plant is discussed.
Keywords – Hybrid power plant, positive sequence, EMT, stability, transmission planning.

Keep it short: Exploring the impacts of configuration choices on the recent economics of solar-plus-battery and wind-plus-battery hybrid energy plants
Cristina Crespo Montañes 1, 2, Will Gorman 1, 2, Andrew D. Mills 1, James Hyungkwan Kim 1
1 Energy Markets and Policy Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, United States
2 Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, United States
Commercial interest in renewable-battery hybrid power plants connected to the bulk power system (“hybrids”) is rapidly growing in the United States and globally. Since hybrid power plants’ operational behavior depends on underlying design choices, understanding what configurations of hybrids are likely to be deployed in the near-future is important for bulk power system planners responsible for ensuring overall system reliability and planning the transmission network. We use historical wholesale market power prices in the seven U.S. organized wholesale power markets from 2012–2019 to calculate hybrid net values, subtracting costs from revenues, across a wide range of wind and solar hybrid configuration choices to evaluate trends in the commercial development of hybrids and identify factors that may alter those trends. Configuration choices considered here include battery duration, battery power capacity, size of the grid interconnection capacity relative to the generator power capacity, the size of PV panels relative to the inverter capacity, and the way that batteries and generators are coupled. We find that the battery duration and battery capacity have the largest impact on the net value of solar and wind hybrids, with the most attractive hybrids having a two-hour battery duration. We find that it is more attractive to set the interconnection capacity to accommodate simultaneous discharge of the generator and the battery, as opposed to limiting the interconnection capacity to the generator power rating, particularly for solar hybrids in the ERCOT and SPP markets. The choice between AC and DC coupling and the sizing of the PV panels relative to the inverter in solar hybrids are secondary to other configuration decisions. Our analytical results align with current commercial trends of online and proposed hybrid projects, thereby suggesting that the net value framework we employ can be used to understand recent commercial hybrid development activity.

Variable Renewable Generation and Flexible Demand
Fereidoon Sioshansi
Menlo Energy Economics, United States
Traditionally in the electricity sector, we would forecast demand and dispatch generation to meet it. In the future, as the percentage of variable renewable generation continues to rise, we must forecast generation and schedule demand to match it. This suggests a fundamental new way to operate power systems, hybrid or traditional, small or large scale.

Moreover, the ways in which electricity was generated in large central power plants and delivered to passive customers through a one-way transmission and distribution network is radically changing to one where consumers can generate, store and consume a significant portion of their energy needs. This, however, is only the first step of the transformation of the electric power sector, to be followed by the ability to share or trade with others using the distribution network. More exciting and disruptive opportunities are emerging with the increased digitalization of behind-the-meter assets, which in turn can be aggregated into large portfolios of flexible load and generation and optimized using artificial intelligence and machine learning.

In this context, to keep future systems operational and reliable, we must develop flexible demand, which can follow the variable renewable generation.

This presentation highlights insights from Variable Generation, Flexible Demand, a recent book edited by the author on the role of smart aggregators who can manage large portfolios of flexible demand, which can take advantage of variable renewable generation at all times.

New Frequency Control Philosophy for future Hybrid Power Plants
George Alin RADUCU, Ozan Sahin, Bashar Alahmad, Daniel Pombo Vazquez, Stoyan Kanev
Vattenfall, Sweden
Continuous reduction over the years of incentives/subsidies for the Onshore renewable generation sources require participation of different renewable assets into the ancillary services markets for accessing new revenue workstreams. One of these renewable projects is Haringvliet Hybrid Power Plant (HyPP). It is considered as the first utility scale hybrid plant in Europe [1] and combines wind power, solar power and a battery energy storage under the same point of connection with a capacity of 22 MW, 32 MW and 12 MW, respectively. The battery is used to participate in the ancillary services market called Frequency Containment Reserve (FCR), while the renewable generation sources in the Energy Market mainly.
To operate such complex system, new control philosophy needed to be developed over the past years, referred to here as Hybrid Power Plant Controller (HPPC). Its development progress was covered in [1] [2]. This paper considers the development of new HPPC features to facilitate the compliance with the FCR requirements on a HyPP level rather than the battery solely.
The Haringvliet HyPP was commissioned in early 2021. At the same time, Vattenfall’s in-house developed HPPC successfully took the role of coordinating and supervising the power production at site. Different functionalities of the HPPC, such as the active power control (power level adjustment and frequency support) as well as reactive power control (power factor control, voltage control and Q-control) are all tested and operational.
This paper first presents a selection of field results from the Haringvliet site, where the FCR support is only provided by the battery asset, demonstrating the control performance under various operational modes. Furthermore, the paper provides simulation results demonstrating the newly proposed HyPP frequency controller with different capabilities such as distributed FCR volumes, FCR distribution priorities along internal components and reactive power support that can be added alongside the previous scenarios. These simulations are designed to cover different frequency ranges (under, over and dead band). Eventually, an active power dispatch signal is being sent to every single asset in the HyPP upon the calculation of both normal and FCR dispatches required.
The simulation results of the new feature show that it can be utilized in future HyPP projects upon further development and prequalification process of the plant’s assets.

[1] Raducu, A. G., Styliaras, N., Funkquist, J., Ionita, C., & Ab, V. (2018). Design and Implementation of a Hybrid Power Plant Controller. In 3rd International Hybrid Power Systems Workshop.
[2] Pombo, V., Raducu, A. G., Styliaras, N., Sahin, O., Thanopoulos, S., Funkquist, J., Shayesteh, E., V. (2020). The First Utility Scale Hybrid Plant in Europe The Case of Haringvliet. In 5th International Hybrid Power Systems Workshop.

Energy Management of Hybrid Power Plants in Balancing Market
Rujie Zhu, Kaushik Das, Poul Sørensen, Anca Hansen
DTU Wind and Energy Systems, Techincal University of Denmark, Denmark
In recent years, the attention in the academia and industry is being shifted to combine and integrate technologies that minimize the greenhouse gases emissions per delivered energy unit. In this respect hybrid power plants (HPPs), which co-locate wind power plants (WPPs) and battery energy storage systems (BESSs) behind same grid connection point, are becoming more popular nowadays.

To maximize profits in electricity markets, HPP operators use forecast of market prices and incorporate it into the energy management of HPPs. Currently, the accuracy of forecasts of market prices is not good enough for energy management of HPPs and this is the case especially for regulation prices, where there are not yet well developed forecasting techniques. Forecasting of regulation prices is especially difficult due to stochastic nature of power generations and loads going out of service due to faults. Therefore, a sound processing of forecast error is highly needed, as large forecast errors may cause aggressive or conservative operation strategies, which reduce the profits for the HPPs. For example, for balancing market, the profits may even be negative, if balancing reserves are expected for up regulation; however, in reality the required balancing is for down regulation and vice versa. In order to counteract such challenges, the development of an HPP energy management system (EMS), which incorporates prices forecast errors in the optimization algorithm, is important.

This paper focuses on preliminary investigation of Hybrid Power Plants (HPPs) operation in balancing market in 2030. The opportunities of balancing market are firstly analyzed. Then the 2030 market information is simulated by balancing tool chain. Spot market optimization and balancing market optimization are introduced sequentially. For balancing market optimization, a scenario based stochastic optimization is applied to deal with the forecast errors of regulation price. By leveraging multi-price scenarios, the objective function is to maximize expectation of profits. In case study, market scenario of 2020 and 2030 are compared firstly. After that, we define two cases to simulate HPP operation in 2030. The case when HPP only participates in spot market is designed as a benchmark case to evaluate the value of balancing market. The investigation assumes an HPP located in West Denmark (DK1) and therefore applies the market rules for this area. Simulation results demonstrate that HPP can receive 11% increase of revenues in balancing market, but due to the high degradation costs of battery, the profit increase is 5.9%.

Vulnerable Operation of Brazilian Northeastern System Under Hydric Crisis and Large Amount of Renewables
Ana Vitoria de Almeida Macedo 1, Raphael Leite de Andrade Reis 1, Jose Julio de Almeida Lins Leitao 2, Paulo F Ribeiro 3, Paulo Cesar de Souza Camara 4, Washington Araujo Neves 2, Benemar Alencar de Souza 2
1 Federal Rural University of Pernambuco - UFRPE, Brazil
2 Federal University of Campina Grande - UFCG, Brazil
3 Federal University of Itajubá - UNIFEI, Brazil
4 CHESF, Brazil
This paper discusses the impact of the new electricity matrix on the behavior of the electrical system in the Brazilian Northeastern region, showing the challenges faced by a new configuration in which hydroelectric plants operate proportionally with few machines and there is great penetration of wind and photovoltaic power plants, reducing the mechanical inertia present in the grid in addition to reducing control resources associated with hydroelectric plants. Suggests alternatives to compensate for these losses, which should be stimulated by regulatory agents.

Analysis of the Sizing Factor Inverter in Brazilian Regions of Tropical Semiarid Climate
José Fábio Brilhante de Freitas Filho 1, Washington Luiz Araújo Neves 1, Flávio Bezerra Costa 2, Leonardo Teodósio da Costa 1
1 Federal University of Campina Grande, Brazil
2 Michigan Technological University, United States
Designers of solar energy systems constantly opt for a photovoltaic generator power higher than the inverter power, considering the Sizing Factor Inverter (SFI) inferior to the unit to reduce costs. However, this can decrease inverter lifespan and increase inverter power clipping losses. The main goals of this research are to: determine a range of SFI values for wich higher values of annual average productivity and performance ratio of photovoltaic systems are obtained, in regions of semiarid climate, and analyze the influence of climatic factors - such as wind speed and relative humidity - in the SFI calculation. The methodology proposed for the execution of this research consists of: i) analyzing models for determining the output powers of photovoltaic modules and inverters; ii) study the effects of wind speed and relative humidity in the calculation of the operating temperature of photovoltaic cells; iii) use climate databases to calculate the FDI, to relate this parameter to geographic location; and iv) develop simulation programs and results analysis. The results of this research are the development of a methodology for calculating the SFI that considers the influence of relative humidity and wind speed on the operating temperature of photovoltaic cells; demonstrations that in semiarid climates it is appropriate to use SFI in the range of 0,9 to 1,1 and contributions to the construction of a map that contains intervals of FDI values for which better merit indexes of photovoltaic systems in the brazilian semiarid.

Keywords-photovoltaic systems; semiarid climate; sizing factor inverter; productivity; wind speed.

Analysis and Performance of a Grid Connected PV System for Compensating Harmonics Arising from Non-Linear Industrial Loads
Leonardo Teodosio da Costa 1, Washington Luiz Araújo Neves 1, Flávio Bezerra Costa 2, José Fábio Brilhante de Freitas Filho 1
1 Federal University of Campina Grande, Brazil
2 Michigan Technological University, United States
When non-linear loads are connected to the electrical system, several unwanted conditions are observed: voltage unbalance, voltage and current harmonic distortions and low power factor. This may compromise the stability of the electrical system. In this work, a compensation scheme, aiming to improve power quality (PQ), is proposed to reduce the total harmonic current distortion in a distributed generation (DG) system connected to the electrical grid. This compensation is performed by means of a three-phase inverter, whose DC bus is connected to the photovoltaic system, acting as an active power filter (APF). In this way, contributions from the control strategy used for the connection of photovoltaic systems are proposed, reducing the effects of non-linear loads, where the compensation is performed without the need to extract the harmonic components present in the current. Performing harmonic compensation at the point of common coupling (PCC) ensures that the electrical grid supplies or delivers only active power and the current has the lowest possible harmonic content. The control of the output currents is carried out indirectly and the power balance in the electrical grid and in the voltage inverter is carried out in the synchronous reference. The simulation results were performed using the MATLAB/SIMULINK ® software, validating the proposed control strategy and highlighting the harmonic compensation in the electrical grid.
Keywords— Compensation, Control, Harmonics, Non-Linear Load, Photovoltaic Systems.

Variable Renewable Energy Participation in U.S. Ancillary Services Markets: Economic Evaluation and Key Issues
James Hyungkwan Kim, Fredrich Kahrl, Andrew Mills, Ryan Wiser, Cristina Crespo Montañes, Will Gorman
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, United States
Variable renewable energy (VRE) participation in ancillary services (AS) markets could provide
new sources of value for resource owners and new options for system operators to manage grid
reliability. From the perspective of VRE resource owners, AS market revenues could help to
offset expected declines in energy and capacity value as VRE penetrations increase. From the
perspective of system operators and the electricity system, VRE participation in AS markets
could provide lower-cost reserve capacity and additional tools for relieving unit commitment and
ramping constraints.
In the United States, however, VRE participation in organized AS markets is currently low or
nonexistent and many questions around the economic value of VRE participation in these
markets remain unanswered. For instance, how would the economic value of AS market
participation to resource owners and to the electricity system as a whole compare between solar
and wind generation, between standalone and hybrid VRE, across the seven organized electricity
markets, and between different AS products? How might the economic value change with higher
VRE and storage penetrations? What changes in market rules would be needed to allow VRE to
participate in AS markets?
This paper examines the economic value of VRE participation in AS markets from resource
owner and electricity system perspectives across the seven U.S. electricity markets. The analysis
uses a price-taker dispatch model with simple, consistent assumptions that facilitate comparisons
across technologies, VRE configurations, and markets over time. It considers two kinds of VRE2
configurations: (1) standalone VRE facilities, with a standalone solar or wind facility; and (2)
hybrid VRE facilities, with a solar or wind facility paired with battery storage.
In a base case, the analysis focuses on VRE participation in regulation markets using historical
market prices, with interconnection capacity limits sized to the VRE facility’s nameplate
capacity. It also examines sensitivities in which VRE participates in spinning reserve markets,
VRE participates in future regulation markets in electricity systems with higher renewable
penetration, and where interconnection capacity limits are sized to the maximum output of the
combined generator and battery capacity (for hybrids).
For standalone VRE owners, the results suggest that the incremental revenues from providing
regulation and spinning reserves would vary significantly across ISO/RTO markets, across years,
and between solar and wind. For some resources in some markets, the average incremental value
may be non-trivial. For instance, average (2015-2019 market prices) incremental revenues for
providing regulation services in CAISO (solar/wind), ERCOT (solar/wind), and SPP (wind) were
$1.4-3/MWhPC (+6-15%). In other markets and for solar in SPP, incremental revenues were
$1.0/MWhPC (+3%) or less. Regulation markets are, however, relatively thin (< 800 MW in each
direction), and even in ISOs/RTOs with higher incremental value expanding market participation
to VRE and energy storage may lead to market saturation and a decline in AS prices.
Participating in spinning reserve markets added little incremental value for standalone VRE
owners, outside of ERCOT and, to a lesser extent, CAISO. This result underscores that, in most
markets, most of the reserve market value for standalone VRE owners would be in providing
regulation reserves, though differences between ERCOT and other markets suggest that this
result is sensitive to differences in market design and AS procurement practices. The high VRE
penetration sensitivity showed significant increases in the incremental value of regulation market
participation for standalone VRE, due to higher regulation prices and a higher frequency of hours
in which regulation prices exceed energy prices.
At current market prices, revenues from regulation and spinning reserve markets are not large
enough to meaningfully offset declines in solar and wind resources’ energy and capacity value as
their penetrations increase. At higher VRE penetrations, regulation and spinning reserve market
revenues may more meaningfully reduce value declines in some markets.
For hybrid VRE owners, incremental revenues were, as expected, several-fold higher than for
standalone owners, though variation across markets highlights differences in storage value due to
different market designs and resource mixes. In the near term, the results suggest that AS
revenues could be a significant part of hybrid VRE business models, with the POI sensitivity
showing that most of the regulation value of hybrids could be captured with POI capacity limited
to the VRE facility’s nameplate capacity when storage is sized to 50% of VRE capacity.
However, hybrid VRE faces the same uncertainty around AS market prices that standalone VRE
In most ISOs/RTOs, standalone and hybrid VRE participation in regulation markets could
provide significant value to the electricity system as a whole, as measured by the difference
between VRE resources’ average regulation value and average regulation market prices. In other
words, VRE could provide regulation during periods with high market prices, which would put
downward pressure on average market prices and provide ISOs/RTOs with a larger toolset to
resolve emerging, higher-cost system constraints. The results show that, in general, VRE
provision of regulation services in ISOs/RTOs with separate upward and downward regulation
products was higher than in ISOs/RTOs with bidirectional products. Hybrid VRE provided more
regulation service and often, but not always, had higher regulation value than standalone VRE.
The results provide insights on two priority areas for considering VRE participation in ISO/RTO
reserve markets. First, developing separate upward and downward regulation products, for
ISOs/RTOs that do not have them, will enable more efficient use of VRE and storage resources
in regulation markets by taking advantage of the fact that these resources have very different
opportunity costs for upward and downward reserves and that prices for upward and downward
regulation tend to be poorly correlated. Second, and similar to the CAISO’s strategy (CAISO,
2020b), focusing initially on VRE hybrid participation in AS markets may be a more efficient
first step toward expanding market participation, given that hybrids will provide more reserves
than standalone VRE and will generally have higher AS value. That being said, ultimately it may
be beneficial to enable both kinds of resources to participate in AS markets.

Optimized Energy Management of a Solar and Wind Equipped Student Residence with Innovative Hybrid Energy Storage and Power to Heat Solutions
Lakshimi Narayanan Palaniswamy, Nina Munzke, Christian Kupper, Marc Hiller
Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Germany
Grid-connected Energy Storage Systems (ESS) are vital for transforming the current energy sector. Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB) technology is presently the most popular form of ESS, especially because of its fast response capability, efficiency, and reducing market prices, but is not always preferred for long-term storage, due to its relatively shorter lifetime. A Redox Flow Battery (RFB) on the other hand has a higher lifetime and better long-term storage capability, but has a higher upfront cost and reduced round trip efficiency. A Hybrid ESS (HESS) consisting of LIB and RFB offers the advantages of both technologies, thus making the ESS more economical and flexible to use while also improving the cycle lifetime of individual ESS. Such a grid-connected HESS is planned and installed for a student residence at Bruchsal having 126 apartments for 150 students and equipped with 220 kWp photovoltaics and 10.5 kWp wind-power. Real-time high-resolution data of the residence’s electrical load and energy generation are collected and used to optimally control the HESS. Additionally, the RFB is also used as heat storage, which supports partial heating requirements of the residence.

In the present work, an Energy Management System (EMS) is deployed which not only controls this conglomerate but also optimizes its operations in real-time. Additionally, an in-housebuilt independent controller for the power-to-heat operation is installed, which works together with EMS to store and extract heat from the RFB. The EMS aims at running the whole system at the lowest operational cost, while also reducing the aging process of the HESS. The EMS is also backed up with energy generation and consumption forecasting algorithms, which enable it to intelligently predefine not only the energy flow, but also the ratio of the energy form, i.e. electrical and thermal.

Hybridization with Floating Solar Plants in Reservoirs of Hydroelectric Power Plants
1 Aviz Consultoria, Brazil
This study aims to integrate the Floating Solar Power Plants in the reservoirs of Hydroelectric Power Plants. In March 2016, Brazil has pioneered the launch of this type of energy by creating solar power plants on floats at Hydroelectric Power Plant. The objective was to integrate the solar plant with the operation of hydroelectric power plants and evaluate the influence of this integration on the ecosystem of the reservoirs.
For Solar Floating, the plates are installed on types of buoys that float in large lakes, normally the same ones used by hydroelectric plants, as in the case of dams.
The project started in March 2016 at hydroelectric power plants, which is located in the state of Amazonas and in the Brazilian Northeast respectively, as a way of taking advantage of the large space provided by the lake's water mirror, such as the substations and transmission lines that were underused in the regions.
In this study, the feasibility of integrating the renewable source of hydroelectricity with solar sources is being verified, these sources are to be used in large proportions, in Brazil, there is still a reduction in the costs of energy produced by solar plants.
At the same time, this initiative has been seen as an excellent alternative to assist in the production of electricity from other sources and, consequently, the use of production capacity is already being expanded to the Northeast dam, which is located in the São Francisco River.
The initial implementation of the pilot plants in the reservoir was started with a generation of 1 MWp. As the EletroCenter has a capacity of 5MW, the study allows for a glimpse of other connected sources such as Offshore Wind and Battery, with a capacity of up to 5MWp.
The plates require an initial investment, but the savings generated by not paying the electricity utilities to compensate for the amount paid initially. Best of all is that, even in places where there is not so much sun or wind, this type of energy can be stored in batteries.
This study aimed to calculate the short circuit currents and the appropriate adjustments for the protection relays of the Auxiliary Services system to be implemented in the Initial Stage 2Mwp and Final Stage 5 MWp of the Hybridization project with the Photovoltaic Source (PV).
We emphasize that some of the adjustments for the relays in the feeders/pathways of the motors to be indicated in this study were reassessed, depending on the current loads and field measurements, during the implementation process.
This study included the adjustments and coordination of the protection relays of the following Switchboards and Load Centers, related to the supply of energy to the auxiliary equipment of the generating units numbers 1, 3, and 5, and to the general auxiliary services 13.8/0 .38 associated KV.
From the database collected in the field related to equipment, devices, and interconnection cables, the study will establish the maximum and minimum values ​​of short-circuit in the collective bars of these panels, thus defining the ranges to adjust the respective protection relays. In addition to the parameterization of the relays, actuation curves were presented to demonstrate the selectivity between the protections in cascade.
A protection planning application for modeling and simulating energy systems and for analysis and protection for short circuit studies, stability analyses, integration studies of renewable sources in the grid; for the analysis of power generation from hydro and solar renewables, including inverter-interfaced generation. Software similar to PSSE, PSCAD / EMTDC, DigSilent Power Factory but national and that was tested by the University of Protection Laboratory with renewable model sources.

Hybrid Energy Solutions for Decarbonization of Islands & Remote Areas
Christian Lenz 1, João Bandeira Santos 2
1 Siemens Energy Global GmbH & Co. KG, Germany
2 Siemens Energy, Portugal
Renewable energy is intermittent by nature, so they are often backed up by fossil power (in many cases fuel oil with a high carbon footprint). Hybridizing such power systems by integrating biofuels- and hydrogen-capable power generation, energy storage, flywheels, and synchronous condensers for grid balancing paves the way to a more decarbonized, sustainable, and even less costly energy system. Remote, off-grid areas have a growing need for sustainable energy that is reliable and affordable. Hybrid systems are being developed with the goal of reducing – or even preventing – carbon emissions via increasing the share of renewable energy. Smartly coordinated microgrids, hybrid power plants and energy parks can make a tremendous contribution to decarbonization. Storage systems enable higher utilization of renewable energy (less curtailment) and reduce the need for additional backup power. This also leads to reduced fuel consumption and dependency on fuel imports. Equipped with autonomously operating control systems utilizing real-time algorithms and weather forecast, hybrid systems can produce first-class results in an economical and environmentally optimized manner.
Siemens Energy offers several pathways for transforming remote energy generation from fossil to less carbon-intensive and renewables-dominated power generation systems. The decarbonization depths depends on the specific customer goals, geographic renewables potential and availability of financing. Starting with measures to increase efficiency of existing technology, over “fuel shift and hybridization” up to “deep decarbonization” technologies, SE has proven to be a reliable, efficient, and innovative partner and one of the very few OEMs with most of the green solution technologies in-house.
On the example of a real-world application, it shall be shown how Siemens Energy supports the energy transition of customers towards a cleaner and more sustainable energy future. Special focus is put on the impact of different levels of decarbonization and the respective effects on CO2 reduction and economics.