Due to their unique chemical, catalytic, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, rare earth metals are critical materials in high-technology applications with irreplaceable application in areas such as medical devices, electric vehicles, energy-efficient lighting, etc. Recent geopolitical instability/challenges, the supply security of REEs is of global concern. Since the global supply chain is currently concentrated in limited jurisdictions such as China and Australia, the need to diversify the supply of these critical materials creates significant opportunities for African countries. The African continent is endowed with some of the world’s largest REE deposits, and as such, it can play a vital role in meeting the growing demand for these critical materials. However, in order to maximize value, there is need to establish and develop capabilities along the value chain. The conference provides a platform for in-depth discussions on the global role of African REE deposits and is designed to stimulate debate on opportunities to grow the African rare earths industry. Overall, the conference seeks to explore the continent’s role in shaping the future of the REEs industry.