The Banff International Research Station will host a diverse, international group of mathematicians in 2023 to study geometric approaches to fluids and optimal transport. The ideas of geodesic settings for fluids have been circulating since the late 1960s, but received a strong surge lately, in the last 5-10 years, with the development of new techniques in infinite-dimensional geometry and group theory. The original idea is that the particles in an ideal liquid or gas move in a curved infinite-dimensional space, in the same way as an airplane flying around the earth: along the shortest path. Properties of the fluid, such as how well it can be predicted in the future, how well it mixes together, and how extreme the speed can be, can all be related to how curved this infinite-dimensional space is, which helps us understand features of the weather and climate geometrically. More recently similar ideas have been used to understand solids as well, for example when a pile of rocks are transported from one place to another at the optimal cost.