Brain development is a complex process which includes a wide range of highly regulated cellular and molecular events ensuring a proper brain functioning at adult stages. The importance of this process is also highlighted by the evidence that many neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Schizophrenia, Down syndrome and many others, are characterized by malfunctioning in key developmental steps in brain formation, resulting in common neurological symptoms ranging from abnormal behavior, epilepsy and intellectual disabilities. Recently it has become clear that not only genetics, but also environmental insults, such as inflammation, represent causative factors responsible for an altered brain development. For that reason, new tools and experiment models, including 3D organoids, are needed for a better understanding of the physiological and pathological mechanisms underlying brain development and disease. The 3° edition of the School of Neuroscience in Como will be focused on this fundamental topic in the field of Neuroscience.