The aim of the course is to learn how tools from algebraic geometry (in particular, from computational and real algebraic geometry) can be used to analyze standard models in molecular biology. Particularly, these models are key ingredients in the development of Systems and Synthetic biology, two active research areas focusing on understanding, modifying, and implementing the design principles of living systems. We will focus on the mathematical aspects of the methods, and exemplify and apply the theory to real networks, thereby introducing the participants to relevant problems and mechanisms in molecular biology. As a counterpart, however, the participants will also see how this field has in the past challenged current methods, mainly in the realm of real algebraic geometry, and has given rise to new general and purely theoretical results on polynomial equations. We will end our lectures with an overview of open questions in both fields.