It is a pleasure to announce the 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture – Research Achievements and Challenges (IOCAG2023). This e-conference is organized by Agriculture, a peer-reviewed open access international journal of MDPI (ISSN: 2077-0472, Impact Factor: 3.408 (2021)). IOCAG2023 will be held online at IOCAG2023.sciforum.net from 1 to 15 November 2023. Agriculture was a major development in human history, leading to the rise of civilizations. It plays a critical role in human society, serving as the backbone of economic systems. Modern agriculture provides the raw materials for food and many industrial products, including textiles. Significant scientific and technological advances over the years have led to large increases in agricultural productivity, as well as to reducing the environmental impacts. Nevertheless, agricultural systems of the future face huge challenges in balancing and optimizing productivity and profitability against the stewardship of ecosystems and natural resources. This conference will provide an online open forum for agricultural scientists and engineers to discuss these challenges and share their latest research achievements in agricultural science and technology.