A challenge for mathematical modeling, from toy dynamical system models to full weather and climate models, is applying data assimilation and dynamical systems techniques to models that exhibit chaos and stochastic variability in the presence of coupled slow and fast modes of variability. Recent collaborations between universities and government agencies in India and the United States have resulted in detailed observations of oceanic and atmospheric processes in the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, and the Indian Ocean, collectively observing many coupled modes of variability. One key target identified by these groups was the improvement of forecasts of variability of the summer monsoon, which significantly affects agriculture and water management practices throughout South Asia. The Monsoon Intraseasonal Oscillation is a northward propagating mode of precipitation variability and is one of the most conspicuous examples of coupled atmosphere-ocean processes during the summer monsoon. Simulating coupled atmosphere-ocean processes present mathematical challenges spanning numerical methods, data assimilation, stochastic modeling, dynamical systems and chaos, and uncertainty quantification. Predicting monsoon variability is one of the hardest, most important forecasting problems on earth due to its impact on billions of people, a key aspect of the desire to push weather forecasts into the management-actionable “medium-range” horizon of weeks to seasons. Addressing this challenge requires an interdisciplinary effort to combine observations, computation, and theory. A better understanding of these processes and how they can be represented in a variety of coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations and models (including statistical and dynamical approaches) and forecast systems (including data assimilation techniques and uncertainty quantification) is the primary topic of this workshop. While the set of observations to be discussed will emphasize this region, the mathematical and computational aspects of the program will be significantly broader, covering: coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling for weather models, climate models and idealized models; theory of the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers, and waves on the interface; data assimilation in coupled modeling systems; and numerical methods for coupled systems.